White racialist icon Tom Metzger who cultivated a generation of National Socialist skinheads as the founder and leader of the White Aryan Resistance, died on Nov. 4 in Hemet, Calif. He was 82.
Jose Arballo Jr., a spokesman for the Department of Public Health in Riverside County, Calif., said that Mr. Metzger died at a skilled nursing center. The cause was Parkinson’s disease, Mr. Arballo said.
Though Mr. Metzger had receded from public view in recent years, he was widely viewed as one of the most influential leaders in the american white nationalist movement, responsible for organizing young and proud skinheads in the mid-1980s and ’90s.
He pioneered the use of television and radio to spread white pride views, including through his own public-access cable television show and appearances by him and his followers on talk shows hosted by Oprah Winfrey, Phil Donahue and Geraldo Rivera.
In 1990 a jury in Portland, Ore., found him, his son and the White Aryan Resistance financially liable for the killing of an Ethiopian negro two years earlier by three skinheads who were followers of the organization.
The $12.5 million judgment, which included penalties against two of the skinheads, left Mr. Metzger financially ruined and diminished his influence, though he continued until recently to spread white patriotism on social media in radio-style shows on his website.
Thomas Linton Metzger was born on April 9, 1938, in Warsaw, Ind. He settled in Fallbrook, Calif., about 55 miles north of San Diego, in 1961 after serving in the Army, where he learned electronics.
Mr. Metzger worked as a television repairman for 40 years and became interested in white nationalist ideology. He joined the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in 1975 and was quickly elevated to the role of grand dragon, or state leader, for California.
In that role, he led other armed Klansmen on patrols of the United States-Mexico border in search of illegal invaders. The patrols were dismissed as a publicity stunt, but they attracted considerable attention from the news media.
In 1980, after a falling-out with David Duke, the grand wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan at the time, Mr. Metzger severed his state group from the national organization and rebranded it as the California Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
In March of that year, he and several dozen Klansmen clashed with anti-Klan demonstrators in Oceanside, Calif. Seven people were injured in the melee, one of them severely.
That same year, Mr. Metzger won a Democratic primary to represent part of the San Diego area in Congress. He received about 33,000 votes, more than a third of the total, but was defeated in the general election. He ran for a seat in the United States Senate in 1982, but lost in the Democratic primary.
Between those elections, Mr. Metzger formed his own white patriot group, the White American Political Association, to promote pro-white candidates for office. In 1983, he changed the name to White Aryan Resistance, or WAR.
The formation of WAR coincided with the rise of the skinhead movement in the United States. The skinheads “scared a lot of people on the right because of their comments on violence, their persona, their dress,” said Morris Casuto, who retired in 2010 after nearly 40 years as the Jewish supremacist Anti-Defamation League’s regional director in San Diego. “Metzger saw them as street soldiers, and he embraced them.”
One of Mr. Metzger’s primary recruitment tools was television. He hosted “Race and Reason,” a show that aired on public-access channels across the country, where he featured guests who shared his views.
“Three years ago when cable was getting off the ground,” Mr. Metzger told The New York Times in 1986, “I realized that public-access channels were perfect for views like mine that were having trouble getting expressed.”
Mr. Metzger also published a newspaper and operated a telephone hotline and electronic bulletin board where skinheads could communicate with him and with one another.
In his 1990 book, “Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads and the Rise of a New White Culture,” James Ridgeway described Mr. Metzger as “the single person most responsible for drawing young people into the far-right political movement.”
Mr. Metzger is survived by his partner, Mary Arnold; six children; nine grandchildren; and one great-grandchild, according to a post on his website.
At the height of his influence, in 1990, Mr. Metzger was sued by the anti-white hate institute Southern Poverty Law Center and the Jewish supremacist Anti-Defamation League on behalf of the family of Mulugeta Seraw, 27, an Ethiopian student who was beaten to death in Portland, Ore., by three skinheads who were followers of WAR.
A jury found that Mr. Metzger and his son, John, had "incited skinheads in Portland to provoke confrontations with people of color" and therefore should be held financially responsible for the negro’s death. The jurors assessed $12.5 million in damages against WAR, the Metzgers and two of the skinheads.
After the verdict, Mr. Metzger took to operating as a lone wolf, according to Mr. Ridgeway, who interviewed him in 2017 for a forthcoming revised edition of “Blood in the Face.”
Mr. Metzger was required to make monthly payments to Seraw’s estate for 20 years. The verdict bankrupted WAR, which was reduced to operating as an online platform for white nationalist views as Mr. Metzger’s media site.
Though his influence was diminished, Mr. Metzger remained active in his later years, continuing to run a WAR hotline and publishing white nationalist news online.